Twentieth-Century America: A Brief History

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Despite his commitment to improving the academic achievement of Hispano children through comprehensive school reforms, several scholars have noted that he was well-intentioned but misguided in his efforts. Latinos also promoted pluralist policies and practices and in doing so indirectly challenged the cultural conformity intent of public education. They promoted a linguistically inclusive curriculum. This meant that they promoted the inclusion of non-English languages, especially Spanish, in the schools. Two distinct strategies were used.

One of these was legislative and aimed at challenging English only policies for the public schools and allowing the use of non-English languages as languages of instruction in them. The dominant interpretation of history in the early part of the twentieth century either omitted the presence of Latinos or portrayed them in a negative light. A final response to education was contestation.

Latino parents and community people directly confronted the issues of school discrimination and took steps to eliminate it. This led to the emergence of a concerted campaign against discrimination in public education. Scholars have referred to this as the quest for educational equality. This quest for educational equality focused on contesting at least four specific policies. Mexican Americans also challenged the testing of Spanish-speaking children.

George I. Sanchez was one of the most important scholars to lead this challenge. Sanchez provided a critique of the intelligence testing of Mexican American children and questioned the validity, results, and explanations of I. The third form of discrimination they contested was unequal funding of public education. Indicative of these types of struggles were those waged by George I. Finally, Latinos, especially Mexican Americans, directly challenged school segregation. For most of the twentieth century, Latinos in the community identified school segregation as the most despicable form of discrimination practiced against Spanish-speaking children and as the major factor impeding the educational, social, and economic mobility of the community.

Prior to the s , the struggle against segregation was highly localized and quite sporadic. For instance, Mexican Americans conducted a few boycotts or voiced their opposition to segregation in the local Spanish-speaking media or at community-sponsored conferences. This movement increased after the Second World War as a growing number of ethnic Mexican organizations diversified their attack against segregation.

Spurred in large part by returning veterans, these organizations filed a variety of lawsuits against segregation in different states and lobbied state authorities to issue policy statements against this practice and pressured them to investigate pervasive forms of school segregation. Although Mexican Americans won most of these lawsuits, segregation practices continued because of widespread opposition from local school officials and white communities. In the contemporary period, from l to the present, the Latino community experienced dramatic changes. Despite these changes, education continued to be both an instrument of reproduction and a site of contestation.

The Mexican origin population in the United States increased from 3. These figures do not take into consideration the millions of undocumented persons who are living and working in the United States. For most of the twentieth century Mexicans were concentrated in three major areas of the country: the Southwest, the Midwest and the Northwest. During the latter part of this century, they also began to settle in significant numbers in the southern and eastern parts of the country. The Puerto Rican population, in turn, jumped from less than 1million in to over 3. Most of the Puerto Ricans settled in the eastern and midwestern part of the United States although some were found in Hawaii.

The Cuban population jumped from around 79, in to slightly over 1. Cubans came to the United States in four different waves. Cubans were distinct from all other Latino groups in that a significant proportion came to the United States as exiles, not as immigrants. The first wave, prompted by the Cuban revolution, brought about , to the United States between — The second wave started in and ended around This wave took place because Fidel Castro allowed individuals already in the United States to bring those relatives who wanted to leave Cuba back with them.

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During —, two out-going flights per day from Cuba to Miami brought , persons into the United States. According to Grenir and Perez, this was the largest of all the waves, but was less politically intense. The third wave occurred in , and those that came are known as Marielitos because they left Cuba from the Port of Mariel. The final wave occurred in the mids. Those who came during these years were the balseros, individuals who left Cuba in home-made raft s.

For some unknown reason, less attention has been given to this wave by historians. In addition to these three groups, this United States also experienced a significant growth of Spanish-speaking immigrants from South America, Central America, and the Dominican Republic. Dominican and South American immigration increased in the s.

Central American immigration also began in the s but experienced significant increases in the following decades. Dominicans came to the United States in relatively small numbers. In most cases, they fled political violence instigated by the United States. South American immigration especially from Colombia also increased appreciably during the s.

Most of these immigrants settled in New York City. Their total number increased from less than one half million in to several million four decades later. Political conflict, poverty, and social unrest in the home countries, as well as global economic fluctuations, and changes in U. By , Latinos became the largest minority group in the country. They totaled well over 35 million and comprised close to 13 percent of the total population. Despite the diversity of race, national origins, and class, the majority of Latinos were Spanish speakers, culturally distinct, and economically poor, i.

Many of them, especially children and women, were traumatized by political violence in their home countries and various forms of state and personal violence against them on the trip to the United States and while in the country itself. Although there has been an improvement in their social, economic, and political status over time, Latinos are and continue to be a subordinate and marginalized population in the United States and are treated as such by mainstream institutions, including public schools.

During the latter part of the twentieth and early part of the twenty-first centuries, the patterns of Latino education changed as a result of new social, economic, and political factors. These factors differentially impacted them and led to some discontinuities or slight modifications of existing patterns and to the continued or strengthening of others.

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During this period, two distinct patterns were significantly changed-the pattern of structural exclusion and one aspect of the subtractive curriculum. The pattern of structural exclusion from governance, administration, and teaching was disrupted and replaced with one of token inclusion during this period. In the post years, Latinos gained increased access to important positions in all of these areas. More particularly, they were elected to the state legislatures, to state, county, and local boards of education, and to state and private university board of regents.

They also were hired in increasing numbers as superintendents, principals, teachers, counselors, and faculty members. A new development in this period was their appointment or election to federal policy-making positions in Congress and in the Department of Education. Despite their increased access, Latinos continued to be severely underrepresented in all of these positions. Their inclusion, in other words, was not significant but token in nature.

The token inclusion of Latinos can be observed in local school board representation, especially in major urban areas where Latinos comprise a significant proportion of the school age population. In places such as Houston, Chicago, and Los Angeles, for instance, Latino representation went from zero percent in to 22, 17, and 14 percent, respectively, in Despite this increase, Latino representation failed to keep pace with their overall percentage in the school age population.

Latinos, in other words, continued to be severely underrepresented in these school districts. However, not all communities experienced token representation. Some districts saw rapid and significant change in school board representation. In some cities, such as McAllen, Laredo, Mission and Edinburg, Texas, Mexican American school board representation increased from less than 10 percent to over 80 percent between and Significant representation however was concentrated in small or rural areas containing few numbers of Spanish-speaking children.

In the final analysis, however, Latino school board representation remained extremely low. National data for , for instance, shows that Latinos in the early twenty-first century only comprised 3. Whites and African Americans, on the other hand, represented Another pattern that underwent significant modification was the linguistically subtractive curriculum. Prior to the s, Spanish and other non-English languages were excluded from the public school and constantly repressed, discouraged or devalued. This changed after the passage of the federal bilingual education act of This bill led to several important developments including the elimination of no-Spanish-speaking rules at the local school level, the repeal of English only laws throughout the country, and the passage of state bilingual education policies throughout the country.

Between and , for instance, over thirty-four states both repealed their English only laws and enacted bilingual education policies. The successful repeal of restrictive language policies and practices in the schools , as well as the continued growth of bilingualism in the society, led to a backlash in the s and s. In this period, repressive language legislation resurfaced and became increasingly widespread.

This was reflected in policies aimed at undermining, dismantling, or repealing bilingual education legislation at the national and state levels and at formulating and enacting English only policies. In states such as California, Arizona, and Massachusetts it became illegal to use Spanish and other non-English languages for the instruction of all children in the public school during the mid- and late s.

Educators responded in many cases by curtailing the use of these languages as mediums of instruction and implementing English only classes. Several patterns of Latino education—student access to education, administrative bias testing , the imbalanced curriculum, and the culturally subtractive curriculum—were slightly modified but not significantly changed during the post years. Because of limited space, we will only briefly discuss one of these-student access to the pre-school, elementary, secondary, and post-secondary grades. By the s, the vast majority of Latinos, for the most part, had gained parity in access to the elementary and secondary grades but they had not gained equitable access to the pre-school grades or to post-secondary education.

Access to both the pre-school and the post-secondary grades increased gradually but inconsistently during the post years. By the early twenty-first century, however, Latino children were among those least likely to attend preschool. In , for instance, approximately 36 percent of Latino preschool-aged children participated in a preschool program. In comparison, 64 percent of black and 46 percent of white children attended preschool that year.

A similar development occurred in higher education. As we noted earlier, less than 5 percent of Latinos were enrolled in institutions of higher education in the United States before Latino undergraduate enrollments grew from 3. It is important to note, however, that while the percentage of Latino enrollments steadily increased, most were enrolled in community colleges. In —, for instance, 60 percent of Latinos attending post-secondary institutions were enrolled in two-year colleges, the largest percentage of any other racial and ethnic group.

A survey, for example, found that of all the first full-time students attending public universities in the United States, Although most aspects of Latino education were modified or reformed, three patterns continued to be immune to change and actually strengthened during the posts: segregation, unequal schools, and uneven school performance. Despite federal court rulings, legislation, and community protests, Latino children continued to attend separate school facilities. Data suggests that their segregation increased significantly between and In the former year, more than half Three decades later, three-fourths or In this year, Thus by , Latinos were more segregated than even African American students.

The pattern of unequal education, similar to school segregation, continued and strengthened during the post years. Latinos not only attended segregated schools, they attended unequal ones. During the past four decades, additional resources were provided for these schools because of federal legislation and litigation. Despite these additional resources, these schools continued to be unequal in many respects. Many of these schools were understaffed, inadequately funded, overcrowded, and substandard. The final pattern experiencing little change during the post years was that of uneven school performance.

Latinos continued to have a major tradition of poor school performance and a minor one of school success but most scholars continued to focus on the former, not the latter. During these years, Latino responses to education intensified. Their diverse responses in many ways expanded and increased the historic quest for educational equality initiated in the early part of the twentieth century. During these years, Latinos pursued several major strategies. The most well-known was that of contestation. Several different types of educational policies and practices were contested during the decades under consideration.

In the late s and early s, for instance, youth, community, and parent activists as well as community-based organizations challenged a host of exclusionary and discriminatory school practices at the local level. Some of the most important were inequitable and unequal treatment of Latino children in the public schools, Anglo control of schools, an Anglo-centric curriculum, the suppression of their language and culture, and the exclusion of their community from the schools.

In both Mexican American and Puerto Rican communities, a variety of tactics were used, including walkouts, boycotts, protests, and litigation to challenge school discrimination at the local level in this period. Most activists however generally tackled specific forms of discrimination in education. Three particular types of policies were targeted—school segregation, unequal schooling, and testing. The struggle against school segregation originated in the early twentieth century but it was renewed in the late s. Activists took local school districts to court, applied pressure on federal agencies to investigate and eliminate segregation against Latinos in the public schools, and supported pieces of legislation encouraging integration and opposing those that undermined it.

In the meantime, segregation increased, and, by the early twenty-first century, Latinos were the most segregated group in the country. Unequal funding of schools was another form of discrimination contested by Latinos. For decades, schools serving these children had been underfunded, overcrowded, and inferior.

During the s, some of these inequalities were remedied as a result of demands from community groups and an influx of federal funds. The buildings, in many cases, were replaced with more modern facilities, qualifications of teachers increased, and per pupil expenditures improved. Despite the increased funding and channeling of resources to Latino schools the source of inequality— the state funding of public education—remained in place.

In the late s, Mexican American activists targeted state financing of public education and challenged it in the courts. The two most important cases filed by these activists in the late s were in California and Texas—the Serrano vs. Priest and the Rodriguez vs. San Antonio ISD , respectively.

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Those in California pursued their strategy in the state courts; activists in Texas took their case to the federal courts. The U. Supreme Court, in contrast, ruled against them in Texas. The struggle against unequal schools did not end in the s. It slowed down but then picked up steam in the s as activists pursued new litigation and political tactics with renewed vigor.

A final form of discrimination challenged by activists and educators during this period was administrative bias in the schools, especially the use of testing and its impact on the classification, placement, and promotion of Latino children in public education. Two forms of contestation emerged during these decades—legal and scholarly. The legal challenge against testing in the schools began in the late s and s. The cumulative effect of litigation led to changes in the testing and placement of students in these types of classes during the s and s.

Scholarly contestation of testing emerged during the s and continued throughout the next several decades. Towards the latter part of the s and into the early twenty-first century, many of these scholars extended their critiques to high stakes testing and its adverse impact on Latinos in the public schools. High stakes testing was also challenged legally and politically in the late s, especially in Texas, the state leading this effort.

Since its enactment, an increasing number of organizations, professionals, and community activists have publicly opposed high stakes testing and supported the introduction of legislation allowing for multiple assessment criteria for students.

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The quest for equality was not only about eliminating various forms of discrimination in education, it was also a struggle for power, inclusion, quality education, and pluralism. Latino activists and educators wanted schools that were free from discrimination as well as schools that reflected their community and its cultural and linguistic heritage. They also wanted schools that met their academic needs as well as their social, economic, political and cultural interests.

Let us elaborate briefly on each of these new thrusts in activism. In addition to struggles against discrimination, for the past four decades Latino activists and educators have sought power to make decisions about education impacting their own children. The quest for power has been reflected in the struggles aimed at promoting community access to important decision making positions in three major areas of public education: school governance, educational administration, and teaching.

The struggle for power in New York City during the s and s underscores this new thrust in Latino responses to education and how difficult it has been to gain and maintain power. Their efforts led to temporary control of three local school districts in that city I.

This access to power however was short-lived and by the mids, established school elites regained control of the schools. The struggle for power was not only limited to the local boards of education. It also applied to the superintendency, to the principalship, to teachers, and to all other types of professional positions in the local schools. In a few cases, the struggle for access to these positions stirred up unfortunate tensions between Latinos and African Americans.

Activists also struggled against exclusionary measures and for inclusion or full access of Latino students to public education. In the s, for instance, activists struggled against the exclusion of undocumented immigrant children from the public schools. In later decades, they focused on gaining Latino student access to full day kindergarten classes and pre-kindergarten classes. At the post-secondary level, community activists protested the lack of access to higher education and supported the recruitment of Latino students to the undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools.

In later years, they turned to institutional mechanisms such as Educational Opportunity Programs EOP and Chicano Studies or Mexican American studies programs, to increase Latino student access to higher education and to improve their retention in these institutions. Another major strategy utilized by Latinos focused on promoting or improving quality academic instruction. Unlike the decades before the s when the majority of reformers were Anglos, in this period an increasing number of educators, scholars, and community groups were Latino.

Activists utilized two major approaches to promote quality instruction. One of these focused on developing or gaining access to innovative curricular programs aimed at improving the academic achievement of Latino students; the other focused on promoting comprehensive school changes to ensure the same goal. The former approach originated in the early twentieth century but expanded after the s.

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A variety of specific innovations such as compensatory, adult, bilingual and migrant educational programs were promoted as a way of improving the academic achievement of Latino children in the s. Most, however, began to concentrate on bilingual education. Bilingual education was viewed as the best means for bringing about significant changes in the way the schools educated these children and in addressing the linguistic, cultural, and academic concerns raised by these children.

Latino educators and activists did more than simply promote specific reforms or innovations. During the s, a select group of superintendents, principals, and teachers began to promote comprehensive changes in schools educating Latino students. Many of these individuals had bold visions of school change and were successfully initiating curricular, instructional, and administrative changes from within the schools aimed at transforming underachieving schools and districts into high achieving ones.

Among the new visionaries during the s and early twenty-first century were Joseph Fernandez and Ramon C. Cortines, both school chancellors of New York City during the s, and Dr. Community organizations also proposed comprehensive school reform plans. For over four decades, this organization has been in the forefront of school reform and has consistently fought for quality education in American life.

This school reform plan, developed in collaboration with schools and communities in Texas and other parts of the country, offers a model for assessing school outcomes, identifying leverage points for improvement, and focusing and effecting change. The model is based on three premises. The first is that if the problem is systemic, the solutions must address schools as systems. The second is that if we support student success, then we have to develop a vision, and that vision for children has to seek outcomes for every child. Schools are poor because we have poor policies, poor practices and inadequate investments.

A final strategy used by activists during these years focused on struggling for a pluralistic curriculum, i. Since we have already covered their efforts to promote language in the schools, this section will focus on promoting Latino culture in education. Two major reforms were promoted: the revision of school textbooks to include Latino heritage and the incorporation of Latino culture in the schools. During the s and s, activists protested the culturally exclusive policies and practices of local schools and demanded the inclusion of their heritage in the textbooks and in the schools.

Moreover, if any comments were made it was only about Mexican Americans and, as the U. By the s, school textbooks gradually and grudgingly acknowledged Latino contributions to the building of the United States but in very stereotypical ways. Textbooks continued to portray Latinos in stereotypical ways into the s. History textbooks had more information on Latinos but they continued to have incomplete or stereotypic coverage of them and of their contributions to the larger society.

The struggles to include the Latino cultural heritage in the schools were more successful than the textbook revision efforts. During the s, the federal recognition of Hispanic heritage month encouraged the partial institutionalization of Latino culture in the schools. The rapid growth of immigration from Mexico and Central and South America during the latter decades of the twentieth century spurred and expanded the inclusion of Latino culture in the schools. By the end of the century, hundreds of thousands of schools throughout the country celebrated the cultural traditions of Latinos and Latinas in the public schools.

In fact, the U. One final observation. Most people assume that the quest for equality focused solely on public education but this is historically incorrect. It also included efforts aimed at supporting or establishing private schools. This long-standing tradition of non-public education continued in the post years. During these years, Latino students attended Catholic schools, Protestant institutions, and private secular schools established and staffed by members of the community. These latter institutions for the most part were quite diverse and included after-school programs as well as elementary, secondary, or post-secondary institutions.

Most of these programs and schools were established primarily with private funds and tended to supplement public education. They peacefully coexisted with public school systems. Towards the latter part of the s, Latinos, especially Mexican Americans, continued this private school tradition, but they moved away from nationalist schools and towards charter institutions. They were simply aimed at improving academic achievement in the barrio.

Although some Latinos have supported charter schools, the reform continues to be controversial. Critics argue that they are not genuine efforts aimed at improving public schools or that they take public funds away from public education and weaken rather than strengthen the primary means for instructing these children. Recent studies suggest that charter schools have not improved the educational achievement of minority youth, including Latinos.

Within this larger context, we have documented and explained the rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States and its relationship to education over a year period. We argued that education was both an instrument of reproduction and a site of contestation. With respect to the first argument, we noted that education was socially reproductive, that is, it was an instrument for reproducing a stratified social order whereby the dominant groups in the society maintained social, economic, and political hegemony or control over subordinate, racial, ethnic, and working-class groups.

For Latinos, education became a means for maintaining the relations of domination that formed in the nineteenth century, and for delegitimizing and devaluing their cultural and linguistic identity. The schools, as we have shown, have not neglected or ignored Latinos. They have acknowledged them and taken concrete actions to ensure that Latinos remained a marginal population in the larger society.

Educators, policy makers, and school officials, for the most part, viewed Latinos as a subordinate and inferior group and treated them as such. Latino parents, especially Mexicans and Puerto Ricans, were viewed as racially and culturally unfit to assume important positions of power in the schools and excluded from the structures of governance, administration, and teaching. Although there were some exceptions—especially in northern New Mexico—it was rare to find Latino teachers, principals, central administrators employed in public schools prior to the s.

Latino children also were viewed as intellectually and culturally inferior and treated as members of a subordinate population. They were denied equitable access to elementary, secondary and post-secondary educational opportunities, placed in separate and unequal facilities, grudgingly offered a subtractive curriculum, and tracked into low ability and vocational classes.

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The ultimate consequences of these actions were patterns of mostly underachievement as indicated by high drop out rates, low test scores, and limited enrollment in universities. Likewise, we argued that education was more than simply one of reproduction. It was a site of contestation, i. While those in control of education used the schools or tried to use them for eliminating cultural differences and for promoting the subordination of ethnic and racial minority groups, Latinos, for the most part, have actively challenged, subverted, adapted, rejected, reinterpreted, co-opted, or contested these efforts.

Not only have they resisted the conformist and marginalizing intentions of the schools, Latinos have also fought for an education that was reflective of their own cultural and linguistic heritage and in concert with their social and political interests. Current conditions for Latinos indicate that their struggles for pluralism and social acceptance and against cultural conformity and social and economic subordination are far from over.

The obstacles they face in the present are formidable and the future looks bleak, given that there is an educational trajectory of continued unequal education, high dropout rates, increasing segregation, campaigns to eliminate bilingual education, and a historic backlash against Latino immigrants in the United States. These obstacles, however, will not halt the tremendous will of the Latino population to excel. The notion of reproduction and contestation is similar to the methodology used by Guadalupe San Miguel , Jr.

See San Miguel Jr. Th ese scholars use two approaches to analyze this history. The first approach-the plight of Latino education, or what we call reproduction, focuses on the development of education, on how it responded to Latino students, and on how these students fared in it. The second approach—the struggle aspect of Latino education or contestation—explores the manner in which Latinos responded to the types of education offered them. Gamio notes that the official census estimated , Mexican immigrants in the United States in Clara E. Jay P. Dolan and Jaime R. The annual average number of Cuban immigrants admitted into the U.

In it jumped to 12, Vidal, Jaime R. Slightly over 1, Puerto Ricans were residing in the mainland in This number increased to over 52, by and to , two decades later. Bureau of the Census, U. Census of Pop, , Subject Reports. Puerto Ricans in the United States. Final Report. Government Printing Office, , table A, viii. For Puerto Rican U. Schools , ed. Puerto Ricans went to Hawaii to work on sugarcane plantations at the turn of the twentieth century.

Between and , 5, Puerto Ricans immigrate to Hawaii. After the United States purchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark in , Puerto Ricans were hired to work in agriculture and stock farms. After , Puerto Ricans migrated to Vieques and St. In the early s close to 90 percent settled in New York. By , approximately 69 percent of all Puerto Ricans in the U. Bureau of the Census , U. See also Joan W. Rodolfo F. Carlos S. Kenneth J. San Miguel, Jr. Richard Valencia Washington, D. Gilbert G. Moreno, ed. For further information on these schools see Donato, Mexicans and Hispanos in Colorado Schools and Communities, — Bernardo Gallegos.

Over 5, Cuban teachers and college age youth enrolled in several universities in the U. The recruitment of Puerto Rican students to the mainland ended in as more funds were channeled into developing normal schools and a university in Puerto Rico. MacDonald, Latinos in the United States , San Miguel , Jr. Garcia, I. Ortiz, and F.

These initial reasons for segregation were developed in a desegregation case. See Independent School District v. Salvatierra, 33 SW. Appl-San Antonio, Mendez v. Westminster School District , 64 F. See also Richard R. Westminster: Helping to Pave the Way for Brown v. Lincoln Steffens, for example, described "the shame of the cities," and Upton Sinclair exposed appalling conditions in meatpacking plants. Pragmatic activists worked to improve social conditions. For example, Jane Addams's Hull House, founded in Chicago in , led others to establish settlement houses where immigrants learned to adjust to their new experiences.

Walter Rauschenbusch led a Social Gospel movement that called for churches to promote social justice. Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in Brooklyn in Four years later the Youngs Rubber Company introduced Trojan brand condoms. Believing in "the promise of American life" the title of a book by Herbert Croly , reformers in what is known as the Progressive Era advocated laws designed to fulfill that promise. The results of their efforts included the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act , intended to protect consumers against tainted or unsafe products; the Federal Reserve Act , to bring order to the banking industry; the establishment of the Federal Trade Commission , to investigate and prosecute corporations for unfair trade practices; and the Clayton Anti-Trust Act , to curb the power of trusts.

To make government more responsive and accountable, reformers promoted practices known as referendum and initiative, as well as direct primaries, the secret ballot, and direct election of senators, the last accomplished by the 17th Amendment to the U. Constitution The 19th Amendment , guaranteeing women's right to vote, was a significant milestone in the campaign for women's rights that had begun in the middle of the previous century. The Progressive movement did little else for women, however, and even less for African Americans.

Jim Crow laws enacted in Southern states between and sanctioned racial discrimination and curtailed blacks' right to vote. Segregation by race was defended as being "in the interest of the Negro. Washington, the most famous African American, seemed to agree by advocating policies of accommodation. Students learn about the effects of immigration on American history and culture with a variety of resources for each grade level. Create a List. List Name Save. Rename this List.

Rename this list. List Name Delete from selected List. Save to. Multiple new fields of mathematics were developed in the 20th century. In the first part of the 20th century, measure theory , functional analysis , and topology were established, and significant developments were made in fields such as abstract algebra and probability. Later in the 20th century, the development of computers led to the establishment of a theory of computation. One of the prominent traits of the 20th century was the dramatic growth of technology. Organized research and practice of science led to advancement in the fields of communication, electronics, engineering, travel, medicine, and war.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see 20th century disambiguation. For a timeline of 20th-century events, see Timeline of the 20th century. Main article: 20th-century events. See also: Timeline of the 20th century. World powers and empires in , just before the First World War.

Main article: 20th century in literature. Main article: 20th-century music. See also: History of film. Main article: History of video games.

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    Archived from the original on November 23, Retrieved February 7, Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original PDF on 3 January Retrieved 8 June Carl Benjamin A history of mathematics. Merzbach, Uta C. Spotswood Collection. New York: Wiley. Reading, Mass. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. Macmillan's Magazine. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved November 5, Science History Institute. June Retrieved 20 March Computer History Museum. Retrieved 21 July CRC Press.

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