The Impossible David Lynch (Film and Culture)

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The Impossible David Lynch (Film and Culture Series)

Caygill 19 Likewise, in Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me the spectator is let with a series of unanswered questions, but with the support of saintly Cooper, there is hope via catharsis, in this space outside of time and the restrictions of language. Dreaming a kiss of death What then can be made of the cinematic and televisual dream of Twin Peaks?

But we know that he is already there, that he is immanent in the structure and form of the events, both those previously depicted and those about to be depicted. In his dream, which is shot entirely in reverse, Cooper, 25 years older, visits the Red Room and meets a woman who looks just like Laura but whom the Man from Another Place refers to as his cousin.

She rises from her chair and walking over to Cooper kisses him and whispers in his ear the name of her murderer. Of course, things are not so simple — what would be the pleasure in the case being resolved so quickly? Here, desire is maintained via the open- ended narrative. Immediately aterwards in the car Desmond explains to Agent Stanley the meanings of the strange dance. Both eyes blinking mean that there will be trouble up ahead. Her hand in her pocket means that the local police are hiding something. Her other clenched ist means that the local police will be belligerent.

But the one thing he will not discuss is the meaning of the blue rose, or rather that he is not permitted to say what it means. All the clues have been given in advance. And again it acts as an enigmatic riddle that lies alongside and in excess of the narrative. At the same time, its colour, as Kristeva 41 points out, is the sublimated jouissance which inds its basis in the forbidden mother next to the Name-of-the-Father, and which bypasses and exceeds normative meaning.

We have, therefore, diferent levels of signiication and possible readings in these scenes. Saturn Apart from Cooper and Laura what else is there in the room? On a side table beside Laura stands a small lamp in the shape of Saturn. What is to be made of this?

Is its positioning here accidental, a chance event among the choices of lamp that could have been used, and a piece of postmodern kitsch? And of such inluences the most baleful, that of Saturn, could rule over the melancholy disposition. For Cronos was a god of extremes; he is both ruler of the golden age and a mournful, dethroned god. Rather than dissipating with this spiritual ascent, sadness is intensiied, urging the mind on to ever-higher levels of contemplation, a progressive deepening of speculation.

Pensky 99 he interconnections between stellar inluences and the melancholic disposition are thereby linked in Fire Walk with Me in a manner that insists that we contemplate the objects in the room in great detail, that parts of their meanings might have been forgotten, but that they contain a detailed history of connotations that outstrip the work to which they now relate, to incorporate the past, present and future in their current depiction. Kinda reminds me of that statue. Gordon Cole is obviously referring to the Venus de Milo igure here. And in the inal episode of Twin Peaks there is indeed a Venus de Milo statue which occupies a position at the end of the corridor between the rooms of the Black Lodge as Cooper tries to make his escape in which he comes across various characters and their doubles.

Similarly, in Lost Highway a Venus igure takes on signiicance at a crucial part of the diegesis. As he goes up the stairs he passes, on the half-landing, a semi- nude Venus statue. It is also no accident, or if it is, it is a fortuitous one, that this statue is placed here alongside the other objects in the room. In both of our visits to the Red Room Laura is seated and clothed in a black, velvet cocktail dress, which has a split revealing her legs. Her hair cascades around her shoulders. What then of the igure of Venus in this television series and ilm? Does it, thanks to mechanical reproducibility, lose its aura?

Or does its usage speak about the contiguity between notions of femininity still current in Western philosophy and aesthetics? From marble, quarried out of the ground to be sculpted into sublime yet ixed forms, to plastic, that most ubiquitous yet alchemical material; we run the gamut from the ancients to the postmodern in the representation and framing of femininity.

Yet the links between these periods are brought closely into focus in these few images from Fire Walk with Me. Millennia are captured in this one location where the continuities and disruptions of history can be seen side by side. Stayed with me long enough to rescue me. For Irigaray, the igures of angels act as igurative? As such angels act: As mediators of what has not yet taken place, or what is heralded, angels circulate between God, who is the perfectly immobile act, man, who is enclosed within the horizons of his world of work, and woman, whose job it is to look ater nature and procreation…he angel is whatever passes through the envelope or envelopes from one end to the other, postponing every deadline, revising every decision, undoing the very idea of repetition.

Irigaray She goes on to say, We need both space and time.

The Impossible David Lynch (Film & Culture S.) (Film and Culture Series)

And perhaps we are living in an age when time must redeploy space. Immanence and transcendence are being recast, notably by that threshold which has never been examined in itself. It is a threshold unto mucosity Irigaray Slow motion and mourning In addition to the foregoing discussion there are speciic aspects of cinematic technology that require our attention in these inal scenes. I would like to suggest that we can perhaps think about the use of diferent tenses in ilm as a means of considering their efects and possible afects.

For this slow, gliding motion introduces us to slow-down in which temporality and afectivity are extended. Slow motion is used to linger over the face of the dead Laura Palmer looking down on the body from above; down onto the position the spectator occupied, however briely, a short time before. Indeed, it was only when I watched the scene a number of times that I became aware of them. But he, at least, provides hope and belief for us where otherwise there might be none.

When the camera moves up into the air, towards the end of this scene, slow motion makes us aware of the movement of the angel, which, at one point, hovers over the Venus Pudica statue as in Figure 3. Slow motion allows the spectator to experience the ethereal igure of the angel, which is then superimposed over the hard, ixed shape of the statue.

We are taken, perhaps, to the threshold of our limits to rethink notions of time and space. What can we make of the angel in this scene? It is also one of the igures that the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan ofers in Seminar XX as going beyond the Symbolic; as ofering another form of jouissance which is not caught up in the phallic register.

Possibility of evil as perversion and of death as ultimate non-meaning. Furthermore, and on account of the meaning maintained during the fading away period, there is the ininite possibility of ambivalent, polyvalent resurrections. It endows the lost signiier with a signifying pleasure, a resurrectional jubilation even to the stone and corpse, by asserting itself as coextensive with the subjective experience of a named melancholia — of melancholy jouissance.

However, this might be the start of further work, but, in the same way that Benjamin was able to elucidate a great deal from fragments, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me might encapsulate a great deal in respect of current aesthetic and social concerns. Howard Caygill argues that: In Benjamin the encounter of immanence and excess in the moment of origin is catastrophic — immanence or meaning in history is repeatedly shattered by excess — the act of handing over ruins what it hands over. Yet, perhaps failure, as Beckett proposes, is the best we can hope for in that each work searches for something which continually escapes its grasp.

We try again, we fail, but we fail better and we continue trying. It is, in part, on the narrative level, the death of a beautiful girl, but it is more than this. I think it can be said that we are asked to grieve over an aesthetic structure in which the death of a beautiful girl acts as the cause of art: that art mourns beauty and acts as a veil of death via the hypertropic excess of the representation of feminine murder. In a sense we seem trapped within this structure, while, at the same time, the igure of the angel may ofer a way out into another form of jouissance.

It is one we are asked to contemplate and act upon, but, to do so we need to awaken from our dreams. In the inal outcome we come full circle, before the series started, but we know much more now. We know Laura is safe with Cooper by her side, and our tears can now turn to joy as well. I am in love with this inal scene, I return to it repeatedly. Sometimes I watch the entire ilm, but more oten than not I select this scene in isolation, to lose myself in a few moments of aesthetic reverie, of melancholic cinematic bliss.

As such, he argues that new theoretical approaches are required that seek to understand what these changes in viewing practices mean for ilm theory. Ever Failed. Try Again. Fail Again. In Episode 18, Deputy Hawk explains that his people, i. I am grateful to Adrian Rikin for bringing this essay to my attention. Lynch uses similar shots in he Elephant Man. Who will write the history of tears? In which societies, in which periods, have we wept? Since when is it that men and not women no longer cry? Barthes — My initial premise is this: crying was an invention of the late eighteenth century.

I ofer as proof of this thesis the fact that at this precise historical moment there emerged a brand new literary form — melodrama — which was speciically designed to give people something to cry about. Copjec 2 Still and moving pictures A s the previous chapter has shown, starting from an obsessional attachment to one short scene has provided an opportunity to consider how our afection for art and entertainment in its many forms may provide the means to think with the images, to come to a greater understanding of the reasons for our preferences for certain images over others and to use our attachments to decipher or unpack some of the richness they ofer.

It comes as no surprise to me that I am drawn to a scene of redemptive joy borne out of tears. Where then to begin? At the outset I will declare my position: I cry a lot. Even, or should I say in particular, the most cynically manipulated representation of mawkish sentimentality can elicit my tears. But what pleasures or unpleasures are at stake in relation to my special tears secreted with reference to the Lynchian corpus? Now, when we consider the relationship between tears and sentimentality immediately we run into arguments about the words and their association with emotion and authenticity.

In her earlier article on the subject Copjec provides an analysis of the structural diferences between ilm noir and melodrama. Not everything can be included in it. Melodrama, for its part, not only exposes us to the unfoundedness of the world, it also presents a particular kind of ethical response to it. It attempts to redress the particular symbolic failure it acknowledges by making up for the lack that causes it. His language throughout is troubled.

Elkins According to Elkins we have lost our eighteenth century and we can no longer take paintings such as this seriously. In a sense I think that Elkins is both right and wrong here. Yes, it is modelled on melodrama, but whereas he seems to be unhappy about this, feeling that there is something inherently wrong with melodrama as a form of pictorial expression, it is melodrama that makes it modern in the sense that Copjec talks about. Furthermore, his assertion about it going too far may indeed be on to something, but not something that he wants to deal with as a positive attribution of the efect or possible afect of the painting.

It would appear that Elkins is in the camp of the modern critics who distrust notions of sentimentality. Modernist ine art, in this reading, shares his mistrust of sentimentality and sought to displace it. It is somehow not what advanced art should be dealing with or not in the way that eighteenth-century artists did. Tom Lutz, in his book Crying: he Natural and Cultural History of Tears, argues that: he modernists not only criticized conventional understandings of emotion but also attempted to frustrate conventional emotional responses to their art, celebrating both emotional and aesthetic distance…[which] was in direct opposition to romantic and sentimental modes.

Lutz points out how the masculinist ethos of modernism sought to distance itself from the perceived efeminate sentimentalism of mass culture and kitsch. It is in the dialectic of emotion and the simultaneous acknowledgment of the structural lack in the symbolic that melodrama as a mode of address addresses post modernity. Taylor 80 , referring to the work of Bataille and Heidegger, writes about tears as the trace of the sacred and holy, as tears as secretions and tears rips.

I do not want to discuss tears in exactly the same way as Taylor. Now Lynch and the sublime are oten mentioned in conjunction with each other; as suitable bed-fellows. And the sublime may ofer a way of reading the ilms which connects with other discussions of this concept in contemporary critical discourse without having to accept theological meanings of the work. Central to many reviews are discussions about the relationship between Merrick and his doctor, Frederick Treves, and Mrs Kendall, the actress, who shows Merrick a world of beauty and artiice in the theatre away from the horrors of everyday reality.

Ater the nurses have let the room Treves is shown entering and asks if Merrick is ready. In these shots which, incidentally, remind me of the point-of-view shot in the black and white world of a noir detective looking on to the mean streets of the city below Treves is unable to provide safety for Merrick and can only look on from afar, but he hopes he has been able to do so by securing permanent residency for him in the hospital. Of course, Treves is not able to do this, since he has no control over night-time events when he has returned to the sanctuary of his domestic sphere and the night-porter can take over access to Merrick.

In the secure daylight Merrick can be protected, whereas, at nightfall, when the main staf leave, Merrick is at the mercy of the porter who treats him as a circus freak to be shown of, again, to paying customers.

Following his entry into the home there is a straight cut to Mrs Treves descending the stairs, prior to being introduced to her guest. But, unlike other, usually lower-class characters such as the junior nurses, she does not linch. Anne Treves then says she is pleased to meet him and, as he tries to respond by saying he is pleased to meet her, he is unable to inish his sentence as he breaks down in tears because, as he says, he is not used to be treated so kindly by a beautiful woman. Frederick Treves then ofers to show Merrick around the house as Anne makes tea to give Merrick time to recover.

Time is then brought forward by an ellipsis via the use of another dissolve, which brings us back into the sitting room later on as they take tea. Upon being asked where they are, Frederick replies that they are out with friends. Anne and Frederick look at each other before Frederick responds, and we the audience are complicit in this evasion, because we know or guess that the children have been removed from the domestic sphere to save them any distress and to ensure that they are not made uneasy by the sight of the guest.

Perhaps she could love me as I am. Both Merrick and Anne Treves have tears in their eyes and Anne has to turn away, for has she not imagined him as her own son? Have not her feelings of sympathy for him put her in the place of imagining him as her own ofspring? It is a case of too much response, which is incommensurate with the apparent cause, but this then raises interesting points about cause and efect in relation to what Copjec argues above. It is, partly, this disproportionate response which provides the cinematic excess in all of these ilms.

For Neale, this device is moving because it is always delayed. And the spectator is made aware that Merrick deserves to be loved, that he is worthy of love. Now, whether that is purely sentimental or a sign of sensibility I leave you to decide, but I err on the side of the latter. Several critics have argued that Lynch does no more here than perpetuate an anti-disabled discourse,8 but, perhaps these scenes can be read from another perspective of empathy and sympathy rather than superiority and condescension?

By crying a spectator may be envisaging becoming aware of existing but seemingly lost feelings and the tears may be addressed to and beyond the representations on the screen, the secretions opening up secrets which were hidden but now come back to life. At several points in he Straight Story we are shown the characters crying or on the verge of tears.

Early on Alvin and his daughter Rose are shown in mid-shot looking out on to a thunder storm. Later on in he Straight Story when Alvin is taken in and cared for, while his lawn mower is repaired ater careering out of control on his journey, he is taken to a bar by another old- timer, Verlyn Heller, and they discuss their activities in the Second World War. It is as if the building itself uncannily appears to speak via the voice emanating from within.

At both points it appears as if the house itself is speaking. Lyle then looks out from the cabin and the next image is a long shot from his point of view on to the John Deere lawnmower and trailer. And as the camera follows their gazes we are shown the night sky full of stars into which the camera travels as the credits roll.

Again, we have the sense of the excessive denial of free-lowing male tears which Lynch places onto other objects throughout the ilm — the sentimental excess of displacement. We watch for too long, becoming acutely aware of our indecent, dangerous and yet pleasurable position.

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Tears and crying sounds of distress as well as the luids to accompany the discharge are present throughout Twin Peaks, which, with its trans-generic structure, perhaps emphasizes some of the points Neale and Copjec make about gender-speciic structures of melodrama and ilm noir. Shortly ater this scene the spectator is presented with shots of Mrs Palmer seeking to establish the whereabouts of her daughter who is not at home in bed.

Similarly, when she calls Leland at the Great Northern Hotel our anxiety is raised as our anticipation increases. And it is this example which, I would argue, brings together all of the aspects of the debates about tears we have been considering thus far. In Mulholland Drive the relationship between what we see on the screen and our perceived knowingness or suspension of disbelief as an audience is constantly undermined. In particular, when Betty goes for an audition for a daytime soap her performance is riveting, especially when we have just seen her more prosaic rehearsal shortly before with Rita, acting out, unknown to them, a parody of their break up.

However, the scene which, for me, best encapsulates the alienating efect and yet absorbing afect of presenting the viewer with the constructedness of ilm is the Silencio nightclub scene where the two women go late at night ater making love. As previously stated, this crucial sequence starts just ater Betty and Rita make love. It is all a tape.

And in Lacanian psychoanalytic discourse the voice and the gaze becomes constituted as paramount embodiments of the object a, and hence dialecticized in relationship with the Other Poizat, For melodrama as a genre falls somewhere between comedy and tragedy and is itself an impure hybrid form. Here we can perhaps also relect upon the cinema as a modern site for tears.

Here sentiment and sensibility may, perhaps, be reunited. Perhaps images, in still or moving form, ofer us a privileged route to seeing the veil that art actually provides rather than conceals. I cannot count the times when I have used the credits of a ilm as an opportunity to compose myself before venturing out into the social world outside the darkness and safety of the cinema auditorium, averting my gaze from those about to enter who could see the impact of the ilm upon my countenance. Her detailed readings of tears also points out how psychoanalytic readings can, and should, be historically sited.

By so doing the gaps in other approaches can be breached and our understanding of the role of crying in ilm can be extended. As such, perhaps what we should be looking for and acknowledging is that the efect of tears in these texts actually reinforces the singular lack of recognition rather than a direct empathetic appeal to catharsis. Perhaps the cry is one that will never be understood by the recipient to whom it is purportedly addressed.

Nor indeed will it be properly understood by the addressor. In the lack of the Symbolic, rather than ofering a way to bind us together, the cry may actually reinforce our separateness. And, as I will go on to discuss in Chapter 4 on contemporary cinematic versions of trauma and tragedy, we might have a long way to go to recover that level of receptivity. For Copjec characters in melodrama ind out too late. As Steve Neale points out there is always an excess of efect over cause, of too much in relation to the ostensible cause.

Earlier versions have appeared in Copjec and Her conclusion is that the conjoining of desire and destruction in the s ilm noir is equally present for women and men. However, her essay has a diferent emphasis to the one I follow in this chapter. I am most grateful to Elizabeth Cowie for bringing this essay to my attention. Adrian Rikin pointed out that this extract can also be read as an allegory of a coming out scene. For him he Elephant Man suggested a great deal about his own relationship with his father and stepmother who were supportive and loving when he came out.

I saw Blue Velvet and I felt soiled. He was only partially joking! See Darke for a reading of he Elephant Man in which the ilm is read as a reactionary discourse about disability, which panders to cultural stereotypes. Chambers Dictionary , p. Herta died at the grand old age of 89 in June , so this chapter is dedicated to her memory. Cars and movies grew in tandem.

Like most machines of the nineteenth century, they apply the technology of intermittent motion, as did the sewing machine, the steam train and the machine gun. Rees 83 Ultimately, though, it fell to cinema — the exact contemporary — to explore the cultural potential of the motor vehicle. It is no coincidence that the nostalgic evocation of a golden age for both motoring and movie-going covers the same period: mid-century. Chambers Dictionary and Hitting the highway T he relationship between cars and cinema is closely intertwined as the irst two epigraphs above point out.

In particular, there are a number of ideas or notions that I want to look at — the relationship between screens, mirrors and lenses to sprockets, pixels and spark plugs. In so doing I will investigate, via a brief chronological selection of relevant ilms from this period — Detour Edgar G. Interspersed with these shots of the car are those showing the city of dreams, Los Angeles, below to the let, which looks like a myriad constellation of fairy lights down in the valley.

As a treatise on the subject of ilm as being akin to dream, and Hollywood as the home of both cinematic dreams and nightmares, this vantage point seems a most appropriate place to begin to consider the relationship between cars and ilms. At this moment the spectator is given privileged information by the use of omniscient narration and parallel editing, as two cars are shown careering at high speeds towards the stationary Cadillac.

Rees notes in the quotation used at the start of this chapter, cars and movies have a lot in common, and like many nineteenth-century inventions incorporate discontinuous motion. Indeed, as I watched this clip on my previous computer, now updated, I was most aware of the intermittent nature of these images. While they appeared luid and balanced on the television set, on the computer screen these same images appeared to break down into stilted, staggering attempts at continual movement.

And watching the dark-haired woman on the computer screen, I felt a little like I imagine she must feel — slightly dizzy, disorientated and sufering from a form of travel sickness, although in my case this was a form of stationary travel sickness. Rather like watching a live video-cam broadcast over the internet, these computer-screened images made me aware of the origins and development of the technology — new indeed! See Chapter 6 for an extended discussion about new technology and ilm. At the same time, the development of digital technology, as many commentators remark,1 permits the reinvestigation, from another vantage point, of earlier forms of cinematic technology and production as a means of understanding, in light of changes in technology, what earlier forms of cinematic cultures were doing.

So, for example, the screen presents a seemingly still, painterly image of a boat on the sea, only for it to then transform into the moving image. Ater the crash when the dark-haired woman stumbles into LA the spectator is presented with other highlighted street signs: irst, Franklin Avenue and then Sunset Boulevard. However, this time Diane is driven to a dinner party where Camilla and her new lover, the ilm director Adam Kesher, are celebrating their engagement.

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While the road and street names conjure up a range of exciting connotations I have a need to get a sense of geography to provide some assistance in my exploration of the city and its environs. But this ambivalence to the city and its ilm history runs through the history of noir, in both its literary and cinematic forms. Arguably the strand of ilm-making that has maintained the disruptive potential of European traditions within mainstream production, noir has emerged in post-classical Hollywood as the narrative and stylistic template for an independent aesthetic.

Sheen and Davison 3 It is this connection between noir, LA, Lynch, vehicles and the road that particularly interests me, for here, I would argue, is a crucial quilting-point in the interconnection between the creative endeavours of the ilmmakers with capitalist technologies and the proit system. It is no longer only situated metaphorically, it now occupies the surface of the screen at the level of the diegesis and the uncanny counterpart of the sounds and images emanating at diferent levels or registers within.

He suggests that the postmodern role of L. He is, of course, referring to the irst Bush administration, not the frightening re appearance of the avenging son. But, here the Other is perhaps rather a mirror of the Same. And I will now look in more detail at the ways in which these ilms provide that noir-ish mood via the role played by the mobile symbol of LA — the car — in these cinematic visions. Making a detour As Los Angeles is the home of the North American ilm industry, its appearance in ilm noir as both a starting point for journeys and as a point of return is therefore not surprising. Here, Al Roberts hitch-hikes from New York to Los Angeles to try and meet up again with his girlfriend, Sue, to make a new, better life for themselves in the west.

However, they are never to meet up again as Al gets caught up in an ever-increasing vortex of fate-inlicted crime. In Detour this wandering is a form of nihilistic horror from which Al Roberts cannot escape. Rather than the road and the trip west ofering a means of salvation and redemption as in some Westerns, Roberts is stuck on the road and unable to get of it.

Similarly, the Western may have, initially, ofered hope for the new settlers, but their near extermination of the indigenous population meant that the seeds of destruction were already sown. As such, the new Eden was already contaminated, so that when we change from the horse to the car, even that utopia was damaged and any journey was likely to lead into danger. At the end of the ilm, which takes us back to its starting point, when Roberts leaves the diner and walks dejectedly up the road, he knows that he cannot escape his fate, that the road has closed in on him and so he wearily accepts his lot and climbs into the police car.

Regarding he Straight Story, Devin Orgeron 44 writes that: Where his previous ilms critiqued the postmodern condition by participating in its chaos, he Straight Story achieves its criticism by denial. Lynch, then, inds the elusive — as opposed to the lost — highway.

In the latter case there does not appear to be freedom anywhere: even fantasy ofers no escape from the horrors of the Real. Earlier in the ilm, when Fred transmogriies into Pete in the prison cell, his fantasy projection sends him of onto the highway to meet his fantasy alter ego who becomes his psychic hitch-hiker.

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Yet this fantasy projection ultimately breaks down and he eventually has to return to himself as Fred. Immediately before this Pete is shown lying under a vehicle as the freeform bebop jazz, played by Fred Madison earlier on in the ilm, comes on to the radio. Ears are an important organ of meaning in this ilm. But, of course, this dream of popular culture cannot last until the end of time; it is contingent not transcendent.

Yet at this moment the depicted present tense, in its slow motion revelation, suspends fantasy while partaking of the Real. Karal Ann Marling points out that: By , the Cadillac tail in had acquired a life of its own: it towered three and one-half feet above the pavement. And it is the blankness that Fred projected onto Renee, the outcome of which he, ultimately, cannot escape from. Here the ilm seems acutely aware of the tropes and conventions depicting desire in noir, in which the woman and the car are conjoined in fantasies of male desire. Instead he meets again the superegoic Mystery Man who chases him from the building with his hand-held camera.

Only this time, ater Renee has let, Fred forcibly takes Mr Eddy back to the desert and with the Mystery Man kills him. At the end of the ilm we return to its beginning; the audience has been taken on a circular journey from which there is no escape, no resolution to the dilemmas posed by the narrative.

And yet these shots of the road in front of the car ofer a diferent form of meaning to the narrative of the ilm. As in earlier noirs the road does not ofer escape but, rather, imprisonment or entrapment from which, it appears, none of us can escape. But Al Roberts could at least slump wearily into the rear of the police car, and we can quietly leave the cinema or put the kettle on knowing that he has to sufer his fate. Fred, however, has no escape in sight and he must keep driving while the spectator, similarly, has no sense of narrative closure or overall coherence.

Other journeys Moving on now to consider other road movies, we can see that the s presented diferent versions of the road and its problems from those ofered in the original noir cycle. For instance, Easy Rider seemingly presents a diferent trajectory in its counter-cultural search for America to that depicting the psychosis of Fred Madison.

Here the journey, similarly, ventures from the west to the south east; from the city to the country, via the Mardi Gras in New Orleans immediately prior to the violent ending a location which plays a prominent role in Wild at Heart, and, in particular, in the violent voodoo death of Johnnie Farragut.

On a surface level Wyatt and Billy appear to be very diferent igures to Fred who is trapped within his own mental turmoil. But the road similarly ofers no solutions or freedom for them either. From drug deal to death the two characters never quite it into the various communities they come across on their journey. At the beginning of their trip the two riders are shown on their motorbikes immediately before setting of. In the irst shot he raises his let hand and looks intently at the watch face.

At this point Wyatt has seemingly cast time aside; he no longer has to be shackled by the constraints of mainstream culture. However at various points in the ilm he comes back to the question of time and its hold over him. In a very real sense Wyatt, Billy and indeed George, the lawyer they meet on the way, are framed by the culture to which they run counter. Billy and Wyatt are able to cross borders, whereas George seems shackled. At one point he mentions that he has tried, on several occasions, to cross the border without success. Again, while potentially ofering choice, the road is again not free of the ideology of the wayside inhabitants.

I cannot know how Alvin Straight he Straight Story, would have responded in the s to such travellers of the counter-culture, but he does say to the young cyclists he comes across on his journey that the worst thing about being old is remembering being young. But he seems such a kind old man, haunted by his Second World War-time traumas, that perhaps he understood all that anti-Vietnam stuf. For Alvin, crossing the Mississippi River Figure 14 is also a signiicant milestone in his epic journey, again made possible by the engineering feats of earlier pioneers.

All of these ilms are dependent upon the road surface as a means of travelling. But, what happens of the road?

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Kowalski heads deep into the wilderness when two police cars, which take over the entire road, drive towards him in an attempt to make him stop. Eventually, however, as he double-crosses his own tyre marks he comes to his own crossroads, both literally and metaphorically. However, he soon comes across an old man who lives in the desert and hunts for rattlesnakes.

He provides Kowalski with a means of escape, and shows him that even within the desert there are people living a life outside mainstream conventions, albeit a rather alienated, subsistence life. We also ind out that Kowalski is a Vietnam vet who was honourably discharged from the army and who received a Medal of Honour. Later he joined the police force from where he was dishonourably discharged and his life has been on a downward spiral ever since. However, the opening shots of the road blockade being set up, which links into a title message that takes us back to two days before, forewarns us that this journey, again, can only end in tragedy.

But, this seems insuicient as the ultimate cause, and through the bits of information that become available as the ilm progresses, it is a realization that it is the culmination of many events which have led to this situation some of which will never be fully disclosed. Sargeant 94 he dream of the sixties has come to an end. At the denouement we see Kowalski driving towards the road block, and a close-up of his smiling face indicates his willingness to go out in a blaze of glory rather than submit to the authorities.

In Blue Velvet Frank drives Jefrey out of town to the netherworld of Deer Meadow where he is immolated and violently attacked. In Lost Highway it is signiicant that it is on Mulholland Drive that Dick Laurent loses control and attacks the tailgating driver in his super charged Mercedes. Initially they try to help her and plan to take her to a hospital but she dies in front of them. It is an unsettling scene, one of tragic pathos and appears as a strange diversion to the narrative trajectory. From here the end of their road journey is in sight as Sailor is captured and re-imprisoned.

Upon release, when he is met by Lula with their now four-year-old son, Sailor decides it would be better for them to split up. Lying prostrate on the loor, he has a vision of the good angel from he Wizard of Oz who tells him not to turn away from love. Realizing his error, he runs over the top of a traic jam to ind Lula and Sailor Pace.

As the credits roll he continues his singing, looking particularly ridiculous in his exaggeratedly artiicial prosthetic nose. Gridlocked and stuck, Sailor can be reunited with Lula in a ridiculously kitsch ending. In the cinema we are perhaps destined to be stuck on a lost highway, but is there the potential for a reinvigoration of form and spectatorship along another highway: the virtual superhighway? Perhaps, only time will tell, but it must be remembered that this technology is as inculcated in nineteenth-century predecessors and warfare expertise as the celluloid predecessor, so in a sense we are, perhaps, all stuck on an elusive highway looking for a way out.

For Lynch himself, it is revealing to consider how he is seeking to establish a greater degree of autonomy via his own website where the ilm business has less control and where he can experiment and make ilms in a much freer, more creative manner using digital technology, which will be discussed further in Chapter 6. Lynch gave a screening of the ilm prior to starting shooting on Eraserhead as a way of explaining the mood he wanted for his ilm. AL to Renee Do you own a video camera? Fred hates them. FRED I like to remember things my own way.

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  6. AL What do you mean by that? Not necessarily the way they happened. Look at me! Ulmer, , also discussed in the previous chapter ; and another contemporary example with Memento Christopher Nolan, In all of these ilms the representation of trauma involves distinct temporal disjunctions to notions of classical Hollywood narrative linearity. In this chapter I want to look at the reasons for this increasingly popular fragmentation in narrative form.

    Furthermore, what does this tell us about present-day spectatorship in which even mainstream audiences are attracted to such fare? In an essay published in , Marie-Claire Ropars-Wuilleumier declared that: For the spectator of who saw it when it irst came out, seeing Hiroshima mon amour anew in the s could jeopardize the memory of a ilm whose shock waves provoked more than one to refuse for more than 20 years to see it again. She is on the hotel roof drinking cofee and looking out onto the city below. He is lying on his front facing away from her while his right arm is twisted away from his body towards her.

    As she looks at him the ingers of his right hand twitch slightly as he dreams and then her face changes expression from one of happiness to intense sadness as she remembers, and the camera shows us brief images of her wartime lover, the dead German soldier whose hand is shown in a similar position, and then we are presented with a shot of her kissing his bloodied face.

    What can be known by her or us of Hiroshima? By the narration of her trauma the French-woman — and her Japanese lover as interlocuter and we as spectators — become engaged in a process of traumatic remembering and forgetting. Instead, the spectator is shown the events as if an observer were looking onto the meetings between the French woman and her German lover. For her trauma is such that she can remember only by forgetting parts of her memories thereby distancing herself from the acutely painful recollections of the actual events.

    So, for instance, the viewer is presented with shots of her running to meet her lover in various trysting places as if watching from afar. Similarly, we are given shots of the garden from where he is shot although we never see the perpetrator. Indeed, this location marks, for her and for us, the point of the unseen but constantly felt malevolent gaze that watches all without being seen, and is the point from where she is punished for her transgressive jouissance. For Turim, modernist ilm has direct links to modernist literary forms in the way in which lashbacks are used and which distinguish the modernist ilm from more mainstream usage of the lashback.

    In relation to this scene she points out that the focalization used is clearly that of the female character, as we are presented with the graphically matched shots of the two hands and then the shot of her kissing the dead and bloodied mouth of the soldier. As the scene is so brief, and elliptically presented, the full realization of what is shown can only become apparent in the subsequent lashbacks when the viewer is given further information about the afair and its atermath, and like the female character, can piece together the fractured and fragmented narrative.

    Simultaneously the political events of Hiroshima remain, to some degree, outside of the same form of remembering, and are presented to the spectator in the astonishing form of the prologue images and sounds, which present these events in the form of an ellipsis. Exit for whom? For the viewers were told that Renee did not go to the club that night but stayed at home to read. We also know that Fred did not believe her and that when he tried to call the house there was no response, although Renee later claimed to have been asleep, and was indeed in bed sleeping when he returned.

    Both bodies are then ilmed from above as they lie separately on their backs. Fred then climbs onto her and starts to make love, if that term is appropriate in this context. During this act there is a shot of blinding white light prior to the action moving into slow motion. In the latter it is baldly stated that: He makes love to her voraciously, but her lack of passion disturbs him. He climbs of her and retreats to his side of the bed. In fear he briely turns away then looks again but this time he does see Renee Figures 17 and Laplanche and J.

    As early as 6 December he wrote to Wilhelm Fliess that: As you know, I am working on the assumption that our psychical mechanism has come into being by a process of stratiication: the material present in the form of memory- traces being subjected from time to time by a re-arrangement in accordance with fresh circumstances — to a re-transcription.

    Freud he theory had been expounded in further detail in the Project for a Scientiic Psychology Freud []. So, although Freud repudiated this neurological approach, and indeed tried to destroy it, references to it appear throughout most of his subsequent psychoanalytical writings.

    Here, during what appears to be a glamorous occasion full of beautiful people, Fred sees the Mystery Man enter the room and make for him to enter into conversation. Rather than present images of the Mystery Man in the house the viewer hears only his voice at one and the same time that he stands before Fred at the party. Dick Laurent acts as the father of perverse enjoyment, who regulates, in his obscene injunctions, jouissance.

    Ater talking to the Mystery Man Fred is understandably disturbed and he grabs Renee and leaves the party hurriedly to return home. In so doing, in returning to the scene of his future crime, he can only repeat or live out his murderous dream as a form of repetition compulsion from which he cannot escape but is compelled to act out that dream.

    As their car stops on the pavement outside the house we see shots of light and shadows inside at irst- loor level. Viewing the grainy black and white footage of the video it is hard to tell if the igure is indeed Fred, and even though the ilm stock turns briely to colour this does not really assist the viewer in ascertaining the truth of the image.

    She is badly mutilated. Fred is hovering above her on the tape, on his knees, a horriied, unbelieving expression on his face. On the tape, Fred turns away from Renee — his hands raised dripping blood — her blood. His movements are almost mechanical, constricted, as he strains strangely upwards, seemingly against his will, as if feeling some enormous pressure.

    He looks directly at the camera, his face a ghostly grimace, contorted, just before the taped image goes to snow. Lynch and Giford 33 I have watched this section of the ilm in detail many times, stopping the image of the murder when the screen momentarily changes to colour and it is still extremely hard to make out whether it really is Fred in the frame. In temporal terms the scene comes ater the dream, but the dream was one in which the murder actually happened.

    Although it is the murder that is traumatic, it only becomes so ater the event, by deferred action. Trauma, as a wound or piercing, as its etymology suggests, breaks through the defences which are unable to withstand the excitation brought about by the immensity of the wound. In his discussion of the Wolf Man case Lacan points out that: In the irst place, despite the whole network of proofs demonstrating the historicity of the primal scene, and despite the conviction that he displays concerning it — remaining imperturbable to the doubts Freud methodically cast on it in order to test him — the Wolf Man never managed to integrate his recollection of the primal scene into his history.

    Yet, reading the account I become confused, and have diiculty in maintaining any clear sequential details of the events, and this is similar to my experience of watching Lost Highway. Indeed, it would be fair to say that cinema haunts my reading of Freud, that even with multiple viewings of the ixed cinematic text of Lost Highway, my confusion never clears.

    Likewise, as Lacan states, the Wolf Man could never fully integrate the primal scene or fantasy into his history; it remained outside of being fully symbolized. And reading the case it stands out as an episode in his treatment, which may have been a remembrance of actual intercourse between his parents, or a fantasy arising from seeing animals copulate which he then transferred onto his parents.

    And the same can be applied to Lost Highway. What might that anticipatory event have been? One of his aims is to bring back into psychoanalytic discourse the multiplicity of viewpoints about time that Freud envisaged, and to develop theoretical work on the subject which, Green argues, has been relegated to work on space. And the particularity of ilm is that this process, or object of cinema, permits access to images, sounds and word- presentations that are usually found in dreams.

    Did you ever want to cut away a piece of your memory and blot it out? Al Roberts becomes immersed in a waking nightmare in his cross-country search for Sue, his girlfriend who had set out for Los Angeles ahead of him. Instead he meets the femme fatale, Vera who, like Renee, will be killed, although in the former case her death is presented as a tragic accident.

    Maureen Turim points out that there are two kinds of lashbacks used in ilm noir. So his trauma becomes, in a cinematic sense, ours, and is unknowable to us as well as to him. Picture this: Memento he investigation of trauma or other memory conditions such as amnesia, common themes from the original ilm noir cycle, have been reintroduced in several contemporary noirs. For example, when we are irst shown him meeting a bruised Natalie in a diner she asks him to remember his wife.

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    The Architecture of David Lynch: Richard Martin: Bloomsbury Academic

    Interspersed with these portions of the ilm are others shot in black and white, which follow a linear trajectory. As she states: the ilm self-consciously relies upon conventional climactic formal structure in order to locate its own most important substantive point the scene of choice. As such, Mulholland Drive can be read as a companion ilm to Lost Highway in that the former explores the structure of fantasy and desire in relation to female subjectivity, whilst Lost Highway does the same in relation to male subjectivity.

    In both ilms a rigid divide is created between fantasy and desire, but which McGowan argues, is made even more explicit in Mulholland Drive. As McGowan says: Because Lynch avoids blending together the levels of fantasy and desire, he is able to join them together in a way that reveals the traumatic Real that exists at their point of intersection. McGowan and other commentators have pointed out that, by keeping fantasy and desire separate, Lynch pushes fantasy much further than most Hollywood ilms, which imply fantasy scenarios but which eventually pull back from following fantasy through to its ill logical conclusion.

    Thus, in all three films the two crucial killings are in some way contained in the very beginning of the film, suggesting some alternate chronology of events to the one we are given on screen and freeing us from the usual constraints of linear narrative logic. In both Lost Highway and Mulholland Drive the two-part structure functions in a similar way.

    One part depicts the events leading up to the central murder the first part in Lost Highway , the second part in Mulholland Drive. The other part can be seen as an attempt to restage or re-imagine the basic circumstances that led to the murder in hopes that this will lead to a different ending. This attempt to take back the murder ultimately fails, revealing in a new light the motives behind the murder.

    The structure of Fire Walk with Me works in a slightly different way. Fire Walk with Me can be seen as an attempt to re-imagine the world of the series in a new way this is the main purpose of the first part of the film, which is set in the anti-Twin Peaks town of Deer Valley which ultimately comes to the same conclusion, thus, again, revealing in a new light the circumstances and motives behind the central murder.

    What we can conclude from these structural similarities is that in all of these films the murders and the motivations behind themwhich is to say the emotions behind them form the core of truth around which the rest of the action revolves. In Lost Highway and Mulholland Drive we could even say that the murders are the only events that we can be certain definitely occurred. Lynch is not trying to recreate these subjective subconscious states or even to represent them accurately.

    He is aware that the cinema differs from them in a number of crucial ways and moreover that it is precisely from these differences that the cinema derives its true power. Cinematic meaning is not a totally subjective, isolated and isolating experience, as is dreaming, fantasizing, remembering, etc. Rather, as we have already seen, for Lynch cinematic meaning is a shared experience, generated between people. We can perhaps see more clearly now the significance of the FBI security camera scene in Fire Walk with Me and with the mysterious videotapes in Lost Highway : both speak to the capacity of the cinematic image to express, give external form to, what would otherwise remain a subjective, seemingly irrational logic.

    The reason that the cinematic image is capable of this is that somehow, despite the overwhelming predominance given to narrative in the cinema, it has developed into a form that allows what should appear as great gaps in narrative logic to be accepted as making some kind of sense beyond rational narrative logic. As we have already noted, what Lynch is alluding to in these films is not their place within the cinematic cannon, nor their stylistic surfaces. For Lynch cinematic meaning conflates the subjective phantasmagoric truths that we imaginatively invent in our dreams and fantasies with the literal, quotidian, shared truths that constitute our sense of everyday reality.

    Multiple Realms in Fire Walk with Me , Lost Highway, and Mulholland Drive All three films feature different realms that clearly have a distinct ontological status from each other. Characters and situations from one section reappear transformed or altered in some way in the other section. However, in both films there are also characters that exist in the same form in both sections and that seem to have some understanding of the relationship between the two realms: the Mystery Man in Lost Highway , and the elderly couple and the person behind the dumpster in Mulholland Drive are the clearest examples.

    The existence of these characters seems to speak to the existence of yet another realm that appears to oversee the other two and move between them. However, there exists in Fire Walk with Me too an ontologically distinct realm that links the two narrative sections. This corresponds to the overseeing realms in Lost Highway and Mulholland Drive but is even more developed and intricate than in those films.

    This is the realm is where we find the Red Room and its host the Man from another place, as well as a number of characters, including Mike the one-armed man, Bob, and the Old Woman and the Masked Boy. And of course, there is FBI agent Dale Cooper, who is unique in that he is clearly situated within the realm of the basic narrativehe is investigating the murder of Teresa Banks and will, we know, be investigating the murder of Laura Palmer but he has access to the more elusive other realm as well no other characters move in this direction.

    It would take a detailed analysis of each of the films to work out the precise role of these individual characters within their respective films and they are a varied bunch, some good, some evil, some benign, some indifferent, etc. However, from the above comparison of these three films we can make some useful general remarks concerning the meaning of these characters in relation to the issues we have been discussing.

    Their true function is to dramatize the way cinema can move between and participate in seemingly distinct realms of existence such as fantasy and reality without ever quite belonging to either one. These characters provide a sort of cinematic consciousness that belongs to the film itself apart from any single character.

    Transitions It is important that the transition between the two sections in each of these three films features an example of the new type of proto-cinematic episode that we touched on before, involving more direct references to the cinema. In Fire Walk with Me this is the strange scene in which agent Cooper comes in comes into the FBI office and insists on acting out a dream he had. He proceeds to stand in the hallway positioned under a security camera and then rushes in to the security room around the corner to check the monitor.

    He does this three times and the third time he checks the monitor he sees that his image has remained frozen on screen in monitor, so that he appears to simultaneously still be in the hallway and be in the security room looking at the monitor. Cooper leaves the security room and rushes into the office where he is told that the man is an agent named Phillip Jeffries who has been missing for sometime. Jeffries then begins to utter a string of frantic, confused, disconnected utterances about someone named Judy and a room above a garage, as we get a frenetic montage featuring characters including the Man from another place, Mike, and Bob in eerily effected shots reverse audio and image, superimpositions, slow motion, etc….

    When this montage ends, Jeffries has vanished and Cooper and the others are told that by the front desk that he was never there. In Lost Highway the transitional proto-cinematic episode is a culmination of a series of scenes in which Fred and Renee have received mysterious videotapes that show up on their doorstep. The first showed a couple grainy black and white shots of the outside of their house. From this point the film cuts to Fred already in police custody for the murder. In Mulholland Drive there are two such transitional scenes.

    The other transitional episode main in Mulholland Drive is the Club Silencio scene, already discusses above, in which the revelation of the disembodying technology behind the powerfully affecting illusion of the heart-wrenching performance effectively undermines and destroys the illusion of stability and bliss that seems to exist between the two women.

    In fact, when we look closely at the films, we see that almost without fail, every time elements from one realm seep into and destabilize the other, every time the mysterious overseeing realm disrupt the narrative, Lynch communicates this through the use of some special cinematic technique such as slow motion, reverse motion, strobe lighting, superimpositions, distorted images, overtly stylized use of sound or music, etc. These occur moments occur too frequently throughout the films to make a full list, but examples would include the following.

    These effects create moments in which the normal boundaries of time, space and identity become less rigid, in which the lines dividing past and present, memory and fantasy, dream and reality become blurred and we are momentarily freed from a rational, cause and effect logic. These moments enable us to perceive events in their totality somehow, cause and effect, intention and consequence, hope and regret, desire and resentment, all rolled into one inextricably tangled web and experienced viscerally in a sustained flurry of sound, image, music, and performance.

    It would be more accurate to say that he is trying to open us up to the liberating powers of the cinema. This is particularly important in the case of a filmmaker like Lynch, for whom the unique nature cinematic meaning is clearly an explicit concern. I have admittedly had to ignore a number of these issues in concentrating on how Lynch conceives of the cinematic image.

    Works Cited Chion, Michel. David Lynch. Robert Julien. British Film Institute, London. Faber and Faber Limited, London. Nochimson, Martha P.

    Book review: The Impossible David Lynch, by Todd McGowan

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