Syria : 3000 to 300 B.C. : a handbook of political history
During this process some of the Syrian kingdoms faced a new change of power. One of the newly displaced rulers was Idanda. The foregoing reconstruction causes a number of questions, which I would like to discuss below. First of all, there are no good reasons behind the assumption that Adad-nirari was dethroned by the Hittites, and specially for dating this event to the One-year war. The fact is that Adad-nirari is not mentioned in the sources from the period after the aggression of the coalition of 6 RS Astour in Astour, M.
Tunip-Hamath and Its Region. Or 46 But the very dating of this event to the period of the One-year war does not look self-evident. On the contrary, one can find an indirect proof against this hypothesis. But the structure of the Hittite treaties implies that the whole history of relations between the Hittites and the other party of the treaty should be fixed in the historical preamble in particular, transition from hostility to friendly relations owing to the endeavours of the Hittite king is usually empha- sized.
So, if Adad-nirari was in fact dethroned by the Hittites during the One-year war, why was this fact not mentioned in the Tette Treaty? Accordingly, a lengthy description of submission first of a part of a state and then also of its main territory would be clearly redundant. Ex hoc silentio we can con- clude that there was just no resistance and no change of the ruler, since Idanda, reluctant to risk his small kingdom, could well have decided to collaborate with the Hittites, admitting their suzerainty. UF — There is also a suggestion to date it to the later period: Freu, J.
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Semitica 50 —27; id. Silva Anatolica, pp. Thus speaks Hannutti: Let well-being be over you! You will see what they will do! Save me! The difficulty is that we do not know what was written between the lines 19 and At this point, an important question emerges: what was the aim of sending this letter? Political acts are rarely purposeless, and this letter is undoubtedly a political one. A very important detail is the instruction to read the letter in public, so that all the citizens of Qatna be aware of its contents lines 4—6.
This detail is quite unusual, since most rulers prefer to settle their affaires within their own circle. Addressing the masses is already an act of propaganda. The Hittite ruler makes his best to persuade Qatna not to do this. The letter states that Mitanni is demolished.
But the propagan- distic style of the letter makes it feasible that we are merely faced with one more figure of speech—an exaggeration of the military success of the Hittites over Mitanni.
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Richter, but also with the one I suggested in UF Needless to say, no historical reconstruction of this period can be absolutely convincing. We still must await the appearance of new texts relevant to the problems under scrutiny.
Related Papers. By Daria Gromova. By Violetta Cordani. Al-Maqdissi, , By Gernot Wilhelm.
One-year or Five-year War? One particularly impressive set depicts the Life of David and is probably part of an imperial commission. Jerusalem's Dome of the Rock is the earliest important Islamic building still standing. It is decorated inside and out with gold and green mosaics only the interior ones survive , demonstrating the most extensive use of mosaic on a structure in both ancient and medieval periods.
The Umayyad caliphs build a desert palace at Qusayr 'Amra in Jordan that reveals their wealth and the innovation of their architects.
Fresco paintings of rulers and narrative scenes still survive at this site. Umayyad caliph al-Walid I builds the Great Mosque of Damascus, using architecture for political and religious goals for the first time in Islamic art history, and establishes Damascus as one of the caliphate's primary cities. Potters working in Samarra' under the Abbasid caliphate may be the first to develop lustreware, a type of pottery that incorporates a metal substance into the glaze to create an iridescent effect that resembles glittering metalwork.
Calligraphy, especially that devoted to copying the Koran, flourishes during the Abbasid caliphate. The prominent script style, known as early Abbasid or more generally kufic, is characterized by thick strokes and a horizontal emphasis. Potters in Nishapur, an important city in ancient Iran, create a sophisticated type of pottery that features black inscriptions painted onto a creamy-white background. Baghdad and Samarra' become the primary cities of the Abbasid caliphate. With the construction of the mosque of al-Mutawakkil at Samarra', craftsmen develop a new style of carving architectural surfaces that spreads throughout the Islamic world.
Master calligrapher Ibn al-Bawwab produces a richly ornamented copy of the Koran at the Baghdad court. Saljuq rulers renovate the Friday Mosque Masjid-i jum'a at Isfahan and establish the architectural style used for future mosques in Iran. Krak des Chevaliers, one of the most successful and best-known Crusader castles, is built in Syria by the Knights Hospitaller. The walls of the structure are so imposing that it is only finally conquered in with a forged order to surrender.
Aleppo in Syria is famed for the skill of its woodworkers. One of the best examples, although no longer extant, is the minbar commissioned by Nur al-Din for the Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Potters in Kashan, Iran develop a unique type of ceramic ware in which a turquoise or cobalt glazes were applied and fired, followed by the addition of paintings in black, red, white or gold.
The overall effect closely resembles illuminated manuscripts. Under the Abbasid caliphate, Baghdad is an important centre for learning and book production.
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The Mustansiriyya Madrasa, the first college for all four schools of Sunni law, is built. The Ilkhanid rulers of the western regions of the Mongolian empire live part of the year in great tents that recall their nomadic heritage but are also decorated with splendid silk panels that express their new wealth and prestige. Metalworkers of Egypt and Syria produce some of the finest inlaid brass wares in Islamic history, some of gold and silver inlaid designs depict narrative scenes. The Mongol leader of Western Asia Ilkhan Abaqa constructs a magnificent summer palace on the site of a former Sasanian holy centre known as Takht-i Sulayman.
An abundance of marble-carvings and lustre-glazed tiles indicate that the original structure was striking to behold and extremely costly to build. These volumes are later richly illustrated. The greatest example of Ilkhanid manuscript illumination is the Great Mongol Shahnama. This large folio takes the Persian Book of Kings and modifies it with adaptations of Chinese and European painting techniques to celebrate the might of the Mongol empire. Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, known as 'the Conqueror', consolidates his control with an ambitious construction programme in his capital, Istanbul.
He orders two palaces built and incorporates in their structure influences from various regions. Bihzad, the most skilful and influential Persian painter, creates his only known signed work, a copy of Sa'di's Bustan. Bihzad is one of the talented artists and architects working in Herat at the conclusion of the Timurid period. Continuing earlier traditions, the Safavid rulers call for large and finely made carpets, produced throughout Iran in royal workshops.
Over Safavid carpets and fragments survive from this period, with many of them displaying complex designs that suggest the influence of book illustration. This highly decorative cipher combines his names, the names of his forebears and the descriptive phrase 'ever victorious' in a manner that is highly decorative and difficult to forge. The large manuscript pages are ornamented in the margins with sumptuous drawings. The Shah Mosque is completed by Sultan Safi in Isfahan and, despite its large size, achieves a lightness in the appearance of its domes and blue-glazed tile exterior.
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Persian painter Mihr 'Ali creates the best of his series of full-length oil paintings of Qajar ruler Fath 'Ali Shah, showing the monarch in a gold brocade costume and large crown. Muhammad Ghaffari combines European painting techniques and styles with local themes to create such works as The Fortune-teller. Given the title Kamal al-Mulk 'Perfection of the Kingdom' , he later founds Iran's first fine arts academy.
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