Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify factors associated with depression. The variables were entered to the multivariable model using forward likelihood ratio variable selection method. Model fitness was tested by Hosmer and lemshow goodness of fit which provided p -value of 0.
The median age of the study participants was Majority of the internees were males The median year of stay in the penitentiary, of study participants, was 9. Out of total internees, Additionally, The most reported method for the attempt of suicide were hanging Out of the total study participants, Nearly 17 out of 20 About 13 out of 20 detainees were wishing excuse of their crime and Bivariable logistic regression found that marital status, type of sentenced prisoners, satisfaction with day to day activity before imprisonment, discrimination due to crime, acceptance of crime penalized for, previous psychiatric problem, having family members with mental illness, thinking impossibility not to run the life they had before, social support, thinking to commit suicide, having plan to commit suicide, type of prisons and attempting suicide were significantly associated with depression.
Variables that have p -value less than 0. This study disclosed the level of depression and associated factors among prisoners in the prisons of Northwest Amhara regional state. The study revealed that more than eight out of 19 internees were identified with depression The result goes with the reports of study done among Norwegian inmates This result also in line with results reported by studies conducted on different types of populations, a systematic literature review of depression among Australian women, which reported prevalence ranging from 2.
On the other hand it is lower than results reported on Woman in Central Prison, Peshawar, Pakistan The possible explanation for the differences might be socio-demographic, socio-economic and cultural difference between our study population and the listed studies. There were also measurement like cut off value, and tool difference and prison status difference which might be the other possible explanations. In line with this study, many studies among different population suggested that satisfaction had strong association with depression; which stated strong positive association between low satisfaction and depression [ 42 ].
The possible reason could be as the prisoners worry about their future life they become more depressed; they are also the most stigmatized segment of the population in the society because of the crime they have done previously. A study conducted on inmates of New South Wales, Australia also confirmed this association [ 44 ]. Another study also showed the evidence of strong positive association between depression and suicide [ 40 ]. Many studies on the different population showed that depression was high among individuals who had poor social support.
The possible reasons stated were lack of poor social support which may lead to increased psychological distress; on the other hand, good social support is vital for the prevention of anxiety, both of which have relation with depression [ 45 ]. Other studies added that loneliness has adverse consequences for mental health including depression [ 40 , 46 — 49 ]. This finding was strengthened by the result from Jos maximum Security Prison, Plateau State which indicated a strong association between depression and status of prison [ 27 ].
The possible explanation for this could be age distributions of the prisoners as the distribution of old ages were higher in the Gondar and Dabre Tabor prisons. Even though age is not associated to depression in our study; studies supported that depression were more likely to occur among old ages [ 28 , 36 , 40 , 49 — 55 ]. Even though the study indicated very important factors associated with depression, the study is not free of the limitations of cross sectional study design like lack of indicating the strong cause and effect relationship.
Additionally, the study is not still free of social desirability bias because subjects were systematically more likely to provide a socially acceptable response since data was collected through self report. Furthermore, the study did not collect information on the injury and trauma as they might be other factors associated with depression.
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In conclusion, depression level among detainees in the region was significantly high. Prisoners who had satisfaction with their day to day life before being imprisoned and social support were less likely to have depression while those who had a plan to commit suicide and who thought that they will have impossibility to run life as before if released from the prison were more likely to have depression.
Additionally, place of prisons also associated with depression.
It would have been better if the government as well as the administrators of each prison strengthen social support within each prison and support of relatives, peers, and families for the prisoners. In addition, providing training to scale up satisfaction of prisoners, on how to cop up with new environment just before imprisonment and release, on suicide reduction and treating prisons with psychological distress and depression improve depression level.
We are very grateful to University of Gondar for the approval of the ethical clearance and for their technical and financial support of the study. Finally, we would like to thank all prisoners who participated in this study and for their commitment in responding honest response to our interviews. The donor of the research was university of Gondar from its annual research grant and the research was conducted under supervision of the university.
TKB, wrote the proposal, analyzed the data, drafted the manuscript and revised subsequent drafts. AFD, wrote the proposal, participated in data collection, analyzed the data and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Rejected, love-obsessed and erotomanic: Inside the disturbed mind of a stalker
Ethical clearance was obtained from institutional research ethics review board IRB of University of Gondar. Permission to undertake the research was obtained from Amhara region prison administration agency and respective prison offices. Written consent was obtained from each prisoner after explaining the objective of the study.
To ensure confidentiality their name and other personal identifications were not registered in the format. Privacy was kept while interviewing each prisoner. It was explained to the participants that they have been selected for the study by chance and they have the right to not respond for questions that were not comfortable for them and withdrew from the interview all in all. Finally, the questionnaires were kept locked after data entry was completed and then discarded after two months preparation of the manuscript.
Teresa Kisi Beyen, Email: moc. Abel Fikadu Dadi, Email: moc. Berihun Assefa Dachew, Email: moc. Niguse Yigzaw Muluneh, Email: moc. Telake Azale Bisetegn, Email: moc. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Psychiatry. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Love In The Prison Of Psychosis
Corresponding author. Received Mar 22; Accepted Dec This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Data Availability Statement As the manuscript is our original work, we have primary data collected from the study participants and tool for the collected data. Abstract Background Mental health is the greatest challenges for the current and future generations. Methods To assess level of depression and associated factors among prisoners in prisons of Northwest Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, Institutional based cross sectional study was employed on prisoners selected by multistage random sampling from three prisons of northwest Amhara.
Results Of the total prisoners participated , Conclusions Depression level among detainees was found to be high. Background Worldwide, there are about 10 million people in prisons. Methods Study design and area Institution based cross sectional study was conducted to determine the magnitude of depression and associated factors among prison inmates found in the prisons of North West Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, from January to February Sample size and sampling procedure Multi stage random sampling technique was used to select detainees for the study.
Data collection and data quality control Data were collected using structured interview aided questionnaire having seven parts i. Data processing and analysis Data were coded, cleaned through checking incomplete questionnaires during data collection, by doing frequency distribution and graphical presentation and entered to Epi Info 7 and imported to STATA version 12 for further analysis. Open in a separate window. Characteristic of prisoners The median year of stay in the penitentiary, of study participants, was 9.
Social support, and suicidal ideation and attempt Out of total internees, Factors associated with depression Bivariable logistic regression found that marital status, type of sentenced prisoners, satisfaction with day to day activity before imprisonment, discrimination due to crime, acceptance of crime penalized for, previous psychiatric problem, having family members with mental illness, thinking impossibility not to run the life they had before, social support, thinking to commit suicide, having plan to commit suicide, type of prisons and attempting suicide were significantly associated with depression.
Discussion This study disclosed the level of depression and associated factors among prisoners in the prisons of Northwest Amhara regional state. Conclusion In conclusion, depression level among detainees in the region was significantly high.
Recommendation It would have been better if the government as well as the administrators of each prison strengthen social support within each prison and support of relatives, peers, and families for the prisoners. County Sheriff's Department online database where you can look up inmates. It means her daughter is alive. In , there were 37, patients in California's mental hospitals — a high for the state.
That number fell over the next few decades as state resources were cut and the number of psychiatric hospitals shrank.
Ronald Reagan. LPS, which was in full effect in L. County by , ended the ability to institutionalize people against their will or for an indefinite amount of time. The law limits the involuntary detention of people who are mentally ill to no more than 72 hours before going before a judge. It's known as a " hold" , after that section of the law. At the end of a hold, if a judge finds a person to be gravely disabled or a danger to themselves or others, they can be placed on a temporary hold for up to 30 days.
Then the process of a permanent conservatorship can be begin. Researchers say shortly after LPS was implemented, there was a significant increase in the number of individuals with mental illness who entered into the criminal justice system. The act is still in effect in California today. Draxler, Deputy Director of L. County's Office of the Public Guardian. In , Julie ran away from Orange County.
Woolfolk said she found her in San Francisco in a hospital after being on the streets. All she wanted to do in that hospital was just hoard trash in a room. A "permanent" conservatorship lasts for a year, or until a clinician or the court determines the conservatee no longer meets the legal requirements for conservatorship. A petition to renew can happen at the end of the year, if the conservatee still meets the legal criteria and there are no other alternatives. By , a doctor said Julie was well enough to make her own decisions, according to Woolfolk. But within four months, she stopped taking medication, wandered the streets and ended up in the L.
County jail system. Currently, a third of California jail and prison inmates are considered to be severely mentally ill. Last year, Woolfolk pleaded with L. County Supervisors, the head of L. County Department of Mental Health and L. I have a small circle of close friends that are the best in the world.
I work independently and have even started my own fashion label, Medfed, which is colourful and fun. It aims to challenge the bleak mental health stereotypes that are often in the media. In groups and with individuals, I'm still a little awkward, even angry sometimes.
Does erotomania represent a variant of normal mating behavior gone awry?
I get overly nervous, sweaty or excited around new, loud, terribly clever or attractive people. Tories tend to scare me somewhat, too. But this is surely the response of a sane person. Most mentally ill people report being afraid to talk about their problems, because they fear people's reactions.
If someone talks to you, acknowledge their problem and let them know you're there for them. When people with mental health problems do speak up, the majority report being misunderstood by family members, ignored by friends and work colleagues, or called names and much worse by neighbours.
Be sensitive to their situation and respect their feelings. Include them in your day-to-day activities, such as going shopping, going to the pub or taking a holiday. People don't want to be defined by their mental illness.
- Love in the Prison of Psychosis by Nick Clark | Waterstones.
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